Ferry Efendi

Berbagi, Peduli dan Menginspirasi

The Views of Care Worker Returnees from Japan: Evaluation of Return to Practice

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International Conference: Policy and Practice for Migrant Care Workers in Asia

Conference Introduction


Moving toward to aging society has become big issue in many East Asian countries due to the shortage of human resource caring the elderly. Many countries such as Taiwan, Japan, Korea and Hong Kong have relied on Southeast Asian countries’ support in care workers for a long time. We all know that foreign caregivers have great contribution to take care of the elders or disabled people in imported countries, and on average, they gain better pay than which they can get in their hometowns. It seems to be a win-win situation, but here is left with even more controversies on human right, policy-making, integration, and return migrant issues.

In 2015, the government in Taiwan has made migrant workers’ policy more flexible and more the needy-oriented, particularly on releasing the restriction of long-term foreign caregiving system. But the policy and legislation amendment tends to emphasize more on the domestic labor market demand. Concerning migrants’ integration, quality of life, and enhancement of social-cultural adjustment capability also need a lot of attention.

The conference aims to bring international scholars and expects together in order to achieve the goals as follows: (1) to review the quality of life and their rights of care givers, (2) to explore the current policy’s limitation and weakness, (3) to shape better work environment for the migrant care workers. (4) to assist the caregivers having better adjustment back to home societies; (5) to develop regional and collaborative strategies for human resource development of care giving, and finally (6) to link theory, policies and empirical studies together moving toward social justice across class and ethnicity.


In this conference, five main themes have been developed through the dialogue between scholars and experts from several countries. All the inspiring idea has been well-designed as below:

1.Comparison and analysis of current policy in Asia: This session will focus on comparing current policies and laws among different countries in Asia, especially in aging societies such as Taiwan, Japan, South Korea, and Singapore.

2.Social integration and human right issues: This session will focus on the current situation of migrant caregivers’ social integration and on their human rights issue.

3.Current state of migrant care worker regime: Civil society plays a critical role in foreign labor issue; therefore, we value their deeper insight of the practice in the fields through this session.

4.Return migrants and human resource management policy: In this session, we will put more attention to the return immigrants. What they need is better adjustment back to their home societies; thus, human resource training and management are crucial.

5.Future perspectives of the LTC system for Asia: In the final session, we will focus on the cooperative strategies for the future LTC system in Asian countries.

Support and Sponsors

●Organizer: Risk Society and Policy Research Center, College of Social Sciences, National Taiwan University

●Co-organizer: Far Eastern Memorial Foundation

●Sponsor: Far Eastern Memorial Foundation and College f Social Sciences NTU


●Venue: International Conference Hall, Graduate Institute of Applied Mechanics, National Taiwan University

●Date: 17-18, March, 2016

●Paper presentation: Every speaker will have 20 minutes presentation Participants: 3 minutes for comments or questions if time allowed.


Day 1: 17th March

08:30~09:00 Registration

09:00~09:30 Welcome Tea Party

Session 1

09:30~11:50 Theme: Comparison and Analysis of Current Policy in Asia

Chair: Reiko Ogawa (Kyushu University, Japan)

Speakers Topics

Akiko Oishi, Chiba University, Japan Work-life Balance Policies and Time Spent on Care in East Asia

Michele Ford

The University of Sydney, Australia

Contextualizing Care Work within Asia’s Labor Migration Regimes

Deborah Milly

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, the U.S.A. Policies Concerning Foreign Care Workers in Japan: Policies, Markets, and Current Debates

Yu-Lung Chiu

National University of Singapore, Singapore Familization of Indonesian Domestic Workers in Singapore – A Conversation of Psychology and Social Policy

Riwanto Tirtosudarmo

Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Indonesia

A Comparative Perspective on Indonesia’s Labor Exporting Policy to Japan and Korea: Responses to Push or Pull factors?

Maria Rosario Piquero-Ballescas

Toyo University, Japan Lessons from the Past: Issues for Migrant Protection

11:50~13:30 Lunch Time

13:30~14:00 Opening and Conference Remarks

Dr. Pan-Chyr YANG President, National Taiwan University

Hsiung-Wen CHEN Minister, Ministry of Labor

Prof. Chen SUN Chairman of Far Eastern Memorial Foundation

Kuo-Hsien SU Dean, College of Social Science, National Taiwan University

Session 2

14:00~15:40 Theme: Social Integration and Human Right Issues

Chair: Akiko Oishi (Chiba University, Japan)

Li-Fang Liang

National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan Caring about Migrant Care Workers: From Perspective of Workers'' Right to Care Ethic

Jean Franco

University of the Philippines, Philippine

Migrant Domestic Worker Policies and their Implications on Human Rights: The Case of the Philippines

Lih-Rong Wang

National Taiwan University, Taiwan

Migrant Workers’ Well-being: A Social Inclusion Perspective

Reiko Ogawa

Kyushu University, Japan

Entitlement of the Migrants and Quality of Care: Comparing Policies between Taiwan and Japan

15:40~16:00 Coffee Break

Session 3

16:00~17:40 Theme: Current State of Migrant Care Worker Regime from Civil Society Perspective

Chair: Yu-Lung Chiu (National University of Singapore, Singapore)

Hsiang Lan Liu / Wei Wei

Rerum Novarum Center, Taiwan Love and Money: Multitiered Transfer of Filipino Migrant Workers in Taiwan

Anis Hidayah

Migrant Care, Indonesia Challenging Protection Migrant Domestic Workers in ASEAN

Yeoh Saw Ai / Chiu Yee Koh

National University of Singapore, Singapore

Bridging the Citizen/Foreigner Divide: Migrant Worker Activism and the Day-off Campaign in Singapore

Jing-Ru Wu

Researcher, Taiwan International Workers’ Association, Taiwan Justice in Caring

17:40 End of Day 1

Day 2: 18th March

Session 4

09:00~11:00 Theme: Return Migrants and Human Resource Management Policy

Chair: Deborah Milly (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, U.S.A.)

Ferry Efendi

National Cheng-Kung University, Taiwan

Airlangga University, Indonesia

The Views of Care Worker Returnees from Japan: Evaluation of Return to Practice

Yuko Hirano

Nagasaki University, Japan

Indonesian Returnee Health Care Worker Migrants: Current Condition and Challenges

Maria Elissa J. Lao

Ateneo de Manila University, Philippine Return and Reintegration: State Regulation and the Labor Migrant Experience

Palmira Permata Bachtiar

The SMERU Research Institute, Indonesia Return Migration and Reintegration Programs for Low Skilled Migrant Workers in Indonesia

Attorney Llewelyn Perez

Labor Affairs, Manila Economic and Cultural Office, Philippine The Philippines'' "Assist Well " Program

11:00~11:20 Coffee Break

Session 5

11:20~12:40 Theme: Future Perspectives of the LTC system for Asia Chair: Lih-Rong Wang (National Taiwan University, Taiwan)

Yeh-Liang Hsu

Yuan-Ze University, Taiwan

How Technology May Help the Caregivers? Examples of Gerontechnology Developments

Yue- Chune Lee

Deputy Minister, Ministry of Health and Welfare, TaiwanNational Yang-Ming University, Taiwan Future Plans of LTC policy in Taiwan: Challenges and Prospects

Wako Asato

Kyoto University, Japan Divergent Asian Welfare Regime and Immigration Policy in Asia

12:40 Ending





本國際研討會期望透過世界各國的對於此領域有深入研析之專家學者的研究結果發表與分享,達到以下諸目標:(1) 檢視外籍家庭看護工的生活品質與人權;(2) 了解現行外籍家庭看護工與長期照顧制度和政策的不足;(3) 提出更好的政策建議讓外籍家庭看護工得以在異鄉適應得更好;(4) 幫助返回家鄉的外籍家庭看護工能適應母國生活並能夠就業;(5) 發展地區合作模式以整合外籍家庭看護工的人力資源; 以及(6)也期望能結合理論、政策實務與實證研究結果,深入探究並反思社會正義與階級、種族平等的相關社會議題。







主協辦和贊助單位 ●主辦單位:國立台灣大學社會科學院 風險社會與政策研究中心

●協辦單位:遠東集團徐元智先生紀念基金會(即Far Eastern Memorial Foundation)

●贊助單位: 遠東集團徐元智先生紀念基金會和臺大社科院


●地點:國立台灣大學 應用力學館國際會議廳






第一天: 3月17日(星期四)

08:30~09:00 報到

09:00~09:30 歡迎茶會


09:30~11:50 主題:亞洲各國的外籍家庭看護工政策比較與分析

主持人:小川 玲子(日本九州大學)

發表人 講題

大石 亞希子



Michele Ford



Deborah Milly



Yu-Lung Chiu



Riwanto Tirtosudarmo

印尼科學院研究員 印尼勞工輸出至日韓的雙方政策比較觀點:推力或拉力?

Maria Rosario Piquero-Ballescas

日本東洋大學教授 以古為鏡:外籍移工的保護議題

11:50~13:30 午餐

13:30~14:00 貴賓致詞

楊泮池 校長 國立台灣大學

陳雄文 部長 勞動部

孫震 董事長 徐元智先生紀念基金會

蘇國賢 院長 國立台灣大學社會科學院




主持人:大石 亞希子(日本千葉大學)




Jean Franco




國立台灣大學教授 台灣的外籍看護工幸福感研究:社會融入的觀點

小川 玲子



15:40~16:00 中場休息


16:00~17:40 主題:從公民社會的觀點看外籍家庭看護工的現況

主持人:Yu-Lung Chiu (新加坡國立大學)






Anis Hidayah



Yeoh Saw Ai


Chiu Yee KOH




台灣國際勞工協會 研究員 照顧正義

17:40 散會

第二天: 3月18日(星期五)


09:00~11:00 主題:外籍看護工的返鄉後困境與人力資源管理政策

主持人:Deborah Milly (美國維吉尼亞理工學院暨州立大學)

Ferry Efendi




平野 裕子

日本長崎大學教授 印尼健康照護工的返鄉:現況與挑戰

Maria Elissa J. Lao

菲律賓馬尼拉雅典耀大學教授 返鄉與再融入:法律規範與實際經驗

Palmira Permata Bachtiar



Attorney Llewelyn Perez

馬尼拉經濟文化辦事處勞工事務處處長 菲律賓Assist Well計畫介紹

11:00~11:20 中場休息


11:20~12:40 主題:亞洲國家長期照護政策的未來展望

主持人:王麗容 (國立臺灣大學)











12:40 散會 Abstracts of Papers & Bios of Speakers

Session 1: Comparison and Analysis of Current Policy in Asia

Topic: Work-life balance policies and time spent on care in East Asia

Akiko S. Oishi

Chiba University, Japan


Achieving a balance between one’s work and life has become more difficult in East Asia where patriarchy is still a social norm and people are often obliged to deal with care of their own children and the elderly simultaneously. Some societies in East Asia, like Hong Kong and Taiwan, have introduced foreign domestic workers (FDWs) to alleviate this problem while Japan remains to be stringent to migrant labor. Economic theory predicts that FDWs affect the time allocation and division of labor within a family through changes in the prices of household services and thus labor supply of the highly skilled native women that rely on these services.

To examine this hypothesis, this paper 1) compares policies related to work-life balance among East Asian societies, 2) examines the labor market outcomes, such as hours worked by women and life-cycle pattern of women’s labor participation, and 3) contrasts the time allocation of women between Taiwan and Japan. Distributional consequences of the introduction of FDWs are also discussed.


Akiko Sato Oishi is a professor of public policy at Faculty of Law, Politics and Economics, Chiba University and a researcher at the Research Center for Child and Adolescent Poverty, Tokyo Metropolitan University. After earning her M.A. in economics from Hitotsubashi University, Oishi received her Ph.D. in philosophy from Chiba University. Previously, Oishi was an economist at the Japan Center for Economic Research (1989-1999) and a senior researcher at the National Institute of Population and Social Security Research (1999-2006). Since 2014, she has served as a member of Science Council of Japan. She has an extensive background in the issues of policies and services designed to enhance the well-being of children and their families with extensive research experience in the area of female employment and social security policy. Oishi''s research focuses on: 1) the effects of family policies (e.g., family leave policy) on parents'' behavior and how this might affect children’s economic well-being and later socio-economic outcomes; 2) the effect of social security and tax system on the employment of women; 3) population ageing and its effect on the labour supply of the elderly; and 4) Social Quality in Asian societies.

Oishi has contributed to several books published by the University of Chicago Press that include: The Economic Effects of Population Aging in the United States and Japan (1997); Social Security around the World: Micro-Estimation (2003); Social Security Programs and Retirement around the World: Fiscal Implications of the Reform (2007); and Social Security Programs and Retirement around the World: The Relationship to Youth Employment (2010). Oishi has published articles on employment, income inequality, and social security policies in several international journals, including the Social Indicators Research; the Japanese Economic Review; the Journal of Income Distribution, and Asian Economic Journal. She serves on the editorial board of NIPSS’s the Quarterly of Social Security Research.

Topic: Contextualizing Care Work within Asia’s Labor Migration Regimes

Michele Ford

The University of Sydney, Australia


Since the 1970s, there has been an enormous expansion of temporary labor migration within Asia. Some foreign workers are highly skilled, highly mobile expatriates looking to expand their professional horizons. Millions of others, however, are employed on limited-term contracts in a diverse range of blue-collar occupations, in the service sector, or as para-professionals in industries like healthcare. This army of skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled temporary labor migrants—themselves, overwhelmingly Asian—plays a vital role in the economic systems of the wealthier countries in the region. From Thailand to Taiwan, they work in factories, on fishing fleets, construction sites and plantations; and staff restaurants and hospitals. They also keep house and care for the aged and the very young.

The marginality of many foreign workers in the wealthier labor markets of the region is in large part defined by the uncertainty of their migration status. But migration status is not the only determinant of marginality: temporary labor migrants’ capacity to access the protections available to citizens may also be limited by their labor market position, which in turn determines their access to the host country’s formal industrial relations system. This paper examines the positioning of care workers within the labor migration regimes of five Asian destinations, namely Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan. It argues that the intersection of the migration and employment relations axes within each of these five destinations has context-specific implications for care workers.


Michele Ford is Professor of Southeast Asian Studies and Director of the Sydney Southeast Asia Centre at the University of Sydney, where she holds an ARC Future Fellowship. Michele’s research interests focus on Southeast Asian labour movements, trade union aid, and trade union and NGO responses to labour migration in East and Southeast Asia. She is the author of Workers and Intellectuals: NGOs, Unions and the Indonesian Labour Movement (NUS/Hawaii/KITLV 2009), editor of Social Activism in Southeast Asia (Routledge 2013), and co-editor of several volumes including Beyond Oligarchy: Wealth, Power, and Contemporary Indonesian Politics (Cornell SEAP 2014) and Labour Migration and Human Trafficking in Southeast Asia: Critical Perspectives (Routledge 2012). She has just completed the manuscript of a new volume, entitled From Migrant to Worker: Trade Union Responses to Temporary Labor Migration in Asia.

Topic: Policies Concerning Foreign Care Workers in Japan: Policies, Markets, and Current Debates

Deborah J. Milly

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, U.S.A.


This paper will present an introduction to the state of policy debate and practice involving foreign care workers in Japan, with special attention to the interactions of markets and policies. What policies and markets already exist for recruiting and employing foreign care workers? What do employers want in relation to foreign care workers? How are potential employers trying to work within existing and anticipated policies to employ the types of workers they want?

This paper considers how employers'' experiences with foreign care workers up to now--mainly with resident foreigners working in facilities and with candidates for the Economic Partnership Agreement-based program--together with employers'' knowledge of the existing work-intern system, inform their efforts to influence and use government policy in ways that will work for them. Although a large number of employers remain uninterested in or very cautious about the idea of relying on foreign care workers, others are drawing on their prior experience to set standards and goals for how to integrate foreign care workers into their workforces.

In particular, I highlight three trends: the effort by some employers to recruit and train foreign care workers under existing rules; the effort by employers to influence the proposed framework for accepting workers through the work-intern system; and creative efforts to develop privately or locally-organized efforts that imitate aspects of the EPA model. Although the policy situation is fluid and limits what employers can do at this point, a potentially diverse market is emerging for foreign care workers of a variety of skill-levels.


Deborah J. MILLY (PhD, Yale University) is associate professor of Political Science at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech). Her teaching and research interests include Japanese politics; the comparative politics of immigration; comparative public policy; comparative social policy; social movements; and comparative and regional Asian political economy. In New Policies for New Residents: Immigrants, Advocacy, and Governance in Japan and Beyond (Cornell University Press, 2014), she examines in depth the politics of immigrant policies in Japan as compared to those in Korea, Italy, and Spain. Besides providing analysis of processes of policy advocacy and policy change in these countries, Milly develops a framework for comparing countries in terms of the relationship between effective advocacy over national policies for immigrants and the development of decentralized governance arrangements.

Recently, Milly has been conducting research on the policy debate concerning foreign care workers in Japan, especially from the standpoint of the priority given to professional credentials associated with care work. Since fall 2015, she has held a Fulbright grant for research on this topic in Japan, where she has already conducted over sixty interviews with administrators of care facilities, representatives of training schools, local and national government officials, and national professional organizations, among others. She will continue the research for the grant during summer 2016.

Milly''s earlier book, Poverty, Equality, and Growth: The Politics of Economic Need in Postwar Japan (Harvard University Asia Council) received the Masayoshi Ohira Memorial Prize in 2000. The book analyzed processes of developing policies to address poverty, welfare, and labor problems in Japan from the end of the war through the era of rapid growth. Milly has also held fellowships from the Japan Foundation, the Abe Fellowship Program, and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, as well as a postdoctoral fellowship at Harvard''s Reischauer Institute for Japanese Studies.

Topic: Familization of Indonesian Domestic Workers in Singapore – a conversation of psychology and social policy

Marcus Yu-Lung Chiu

National University of Singapore, Singapore


Foreign domestic worker has always been the attention of researchers and policy analysts. Traditional theories of psychological adjustment and acculturation put much emphasis on conditions that lead to successful completion of contractual works and enhanced productivity of labour whereas policy analysts are more concerned about the treatment of labour, demand and supply issues, and the changing family structure and functions alongside the use of foreign domestic workers.

It is discussed in different sphere and dialogue rarely mingled. Drawing on knowledge on system theory and psychology, this paper argues that the use of foreign domestic worker can be seen as a “familization” process whereby a stranger is being included as part of the family. This will affect one’s ultimate willingness to continue the contract work in the family and the employer’s willingness to continue to hire. The larger environment such as overall economy and policies on foreign domestic worker also determines if this process is a smooth or rough one.

This paper aims to pave a theoretical ground of meeting point for psychology and social policy, and set the framework for a later research into the familization process of Indonesian foreign domestic workers in Singapore.


Marcus Yu-Lung Chiu is currently an Associate Professor of Social Work Department, Faculty of Social Sciences, The National University of Singapore. He received his postgraduate training and education from the School of Behavioural Science and Psychiatry, University of Manchester (UK). He is currently the editorial committee member of several journals and the Editor-In-Chief of the Asia Pacific Journal of Social Work and Development, a SSCI journal. He has authored/edited 8 books, 13 book chapters and 35 papers in regional and international journals.

His research interest is in the areas of social inclusion, caregiver burden, help-seeking, programme evaluation, and mental health recovery. He is an Honorary Fellow of David C. Lam Institute of East-West Studies, HKBU, and a Research Fellow of The Centre For Social Work and Social Care Research, Swansea University, UK. In the NUS, he is serving on the Steering Committee for Next Age Institute (NAI), a collaborative initiative with Washington University, St. Louis.

Topic: A comparative perspective on Indonesia’s labor exporting policy to Japan and Korea: Responses to push or pull factors?

Riwanto Tirtosudarmo

Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Indonesia


In the last three decades, from 1985 to 2015, Indonesia’s experienced in exporting labor to foreign countries has been undergoing several important changes that reflects the state’s responses to changing circumstances within and beyond the state’s borders.

In a comparative perspective this paper assesses Indonesia’s labor exporting policy to Japan and Korea as the state’s response to domestic’s push and destination’s pull factors. Japan and Korea are two destination countries that provide a good case of a G to G policy scheme. The case of Japan and Korea is particularly interesting as the majority of Indonesia’s foreign works are unskilled female working in the domestic sectors mostly in the Middle East, Malaysia, Singapore and Hong Kong.

Irregularities in the foreign labor practices have recently triggered the moratorium of exporting labor to the Middle East. The current government apparently shows its intention to improve and looking for a model of best practices in exporting labor. Indonesian labor policy to Japan and Korea is outside the mainstream practices and could be the show case of a regular foreign labor policy.

Utilizing both quantitative and qualitative data from various available sources and relevant literatures, especially on the past experiences of labor export to Japan and Korea, this paper hopefully could contribute to the systematic understanding of Indonesia’s policy dynamics on foreign labor.


Riwanto Tirtosudarmo, PhD in social demography (1990), Research School of Social Sciences, the Australian National University, Canberra, Australia. Since 1980 has been working with the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), now senior researcher at the Research Center for Society and Culture, the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (P2KK-LIPI). He publishes extensively in scientific and popular journals on political demography and the politics of population mobility in Indonesia and Southeast Asia.

Several books has been published, among others Demografi-Politik Pembangunan di Indonesia: Dari Riau sampai Timor Timur (The Political Demography of Development in Indonesia: From Riau to East Timor) in 1996; Mencari Indonesia: Demografi-Politik Pasca-Suharto (Searching for Indonesia: The Post-Suharto’s Political Demography) in 2007; From Colonization to Nation-State: The political Demography of Indonesia, in 2013; The Politics of Migration; Indonesia and beyond, in 2015. A Fulbright Visiting Fellow at the Department of Sociology, Brown University (1996-97), Fellow-in-Residence 2000-2001 at the Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study in Humanities and Social Sciences (NIAS), Visiting Senior Research Fellow at Refugee Studies Center, Oxford University (Michaelmas Term, 2002), and Visiting Professor at the Research Institute of Language and Culture, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies (2003-2004). In March-April 2008, Visiting Researcher at KITLV, Leiden and Visiting Senior Research Fellow at Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore (July-September 2008). Currently he serves as a member of Editorial Advisory Board of Asian Politics and Policy, and Asian History and Politics

Topic: Lessons from the Past: Issues for Migrant Protection?Maria Rosario Piquero-Ballescas

Toyo University, Japan


When the newspapers reported in November, 2015 about the discussion of President Aquino and PM Abe about Japan’s acceptance of domestic helpers from the Philippines, a flurry of reactions followed.

Media picked up and zoomed in on the proposed high salary that this new job would offer to Filipino women . Immediately, Facebook carried many posts from unknown recruiters, inviting interested Filipinos to contact them through their cell numbers for assistance for DH work and travel to Japan. Very little information and details were offered about how to apply, what the job would entail, how much net income the applicant will get after deductions for taxes, housing, utilities and other basic needs are made.

The surge of interest from these various sectors (including abusive agents and networks) reminded us of similar activities in the past that led to the abuse of Filipino migrants to Japan. The recent rush to recruit Filipinos for domestic work and other jobs in Japan pushed us to review the lessons of the past and to hurry up with a report highlighting the urgency to have clear guidelines that can best inform and ensure genuine and broader protection for prospective migrants to Japan.

The past carries very rich data about migrant protection and welfare, on the one hand, and about migrant abuses and problems, on the other hand. What important lessons can we draw about the latter- migrant problems- from the past to the present that can instruct us to construct a better, more protected world for migrants?

Today’s presentation intends to review challenges related to migrant protection and welfare in Japan that were observed in the past and that continue up to the present.

The data is primarily taken from our own previous and ongoing researches about Filipino migrants in the past until recent. These researches, using multiple methodologies, span more than four decades, from 1970s to the present, with our study of Filipino entertainers, spouses and children of Japanese nationals, Nikkeijins, trainees, permanent residents, caregivers and nurses and children with FIlipino heritage in Japan.

A 2008 discussion of migrant problems in Japan will be used as baseline and will be used to compare several recent cases brought to our attention by Filipino migrants during our latest stay in Japan from 2009 up to this year.

The cases are important reminders that issues that affected migrant protection in the past still persist up to the present and need to be, once again, reflected upon, discussed and resolved together to allow smoother and protective migration processes and experiences, as well as policies and policy implementation beneficial to all involved in the whole migration process.

A review of the lessons of the past, hopefully, can also allow for lessons, not only for policy and practice, but for migration theory drawn from the experience of Filipino migrants to Japan.

Perhaps, this conference can end with a mapping of the challenges for migrants for all countries, a documentation of effective responses to these challenges through policy and practice, and a list of doable, concrete suggestions to monitor and hopefully, resolve decisively recurrent issues affecting migrant protection.


Sociologist, educator, columnist, environmentalist, researcher, advocate for vulnerable groups and author( Philippine Migration to Japan ( 2013, in Encyclopedia of Global Migration edited by Immanuel Ness, Wiley-Blackwell), Bokabularyo-Edukasyong Sekundarya : Chuugaku kyooka tango choo (Vocabulary for Secondary Education : Japanese –Filipino ( co-author, 2014), Women and Disasters: Vulnerability and Resilience ( 女性災害:脆弱性回復力, 2013) , Engaging Multiculturalism From Below: The Case of the Filipino Assistant Language Teachers In Japan, ( co-author, 2011), Sharing Care: Economic Partnership Agreement and Beyond( 2010), Firipin no Kodomotachi Naze Hataraku no Ka (1997, 3rd edition), Towards Genuine Agrarian Reform in the Philippines (in Japanese as Shin no Nochi Kaikaku o Mezashite (1994) , Filipino Entertainers in Japan (1992, in English and Japanese), among others).

Full Professor of the Regional Development Studies of Toyo University at present. Previously with the Social Sciences Division of the University of the Philippines Cebu and the Deparment of Sociology, University of the Philippines Diliman where she graduated with honors. Completed Ph.d at the Department of Sociology of the University of Tsukuba as the first Asian, the first female graduate, and the first graduate invited back as visiting faculty. Founder and first coordinator of the first UNU-accredited Regional Center of Expertise ( RCE) on Education for Sustainable Development in the Philippines ( RCE-Cebu).

Session 2: Social Integration and Human Right Issues

Topic: Caring about Migrant Care Workers: From Perspective of Workers’ Right to Care EthicLi-Fang Liang

National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan


Care crisis is an emerging global issue resulted from the increase of aging population and the deficits of care labor. Amongst the developed countries, many of them use migrant labor as the solution to this urgent demand. The flow of transnational labor and its consequences have become another issue, which the governments, transnational NGOs and academic scholars are confronted with. Most research on migrant care workers investigates how structural factors shape their working conditions and argues for the improvement of their wellbeing from a human rights perspective. The emphasis on workers’ rights pays more attention to the potential conflicts between care workers and care recipients due to the employment relationships. It disregards that care is a relational work that involving both workers and recipient.

In this article, I propose the concept of care ethic to rethink care work in the context of migrant labor. First, I review the studies of migrant care workers to discuss the limitation of rights perspective when applied to care work. Second, I use the stories of migrant care workers and care recipients from my own research to illustrate the dynamics of care work and care relations in daily settings. These everyday stories present the complex dimensions of care work embedded in the intersections of labor, love, empathy and reciprocity. To conclude this article, I argue that the concept of care ethic as the alternative to improve the wellbeing of both migrant care workers and care recipients.


Liang, Li-Fang received her doctoral degree in the Department of Sociology at Syracuse University in 2010. After graduation, she was funded a scholarship by the International Institute of Asian Studies, and then stared her academic career as a assistant professor in the Institute of Health and Welfare Policy at National Yang-Ming University. Influenced by the legacy of feminist scholarships, she is interested in the “invisible work”; mostly is done by women.

Using Institutional Ethnography developed by Dorothy Smith, her recent research investigates how the social organization and social relations of care work (re)shape the lived experiences of live-in migrant care workers and care recipients in the transnational context. Some parts of the results are published in Ethnic and Racial Studies, Journal of Intimacy and Public Sphere, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal and Journal of Aging Studies. As a mother of a three-year-old child, now she is also interested in the work of mothering and childrearing from both academic and mother’s perspectives.

Topic: Migrant Domestic Worker Policies and their Implications on Human Rights: The Case of the Philippines

Jean Encinas-Franco

University of the Philippines, Philippine


The Philippines is one of the world’s biggest exporters of domestic workers. In 2013 alone, nearly 40 percent of migrant flows were domestic workers bound for the Middle East and East Asian states. Nine out of ten of them are women. Meanwhile, the country has been heralded as a ‘model’ in migration management. It has also acceded to major human rights treaties to protect migrant workers, specifically, the ILO Convention 189 on Domestic Workers. However, this paper argues that despite its record on human rights protection, there are still several gaps in programs and policies. These gaps run counter to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). This paper looks at the programs and policies for migrant domestic workers from the lens of CEDAW and its General Recommendation 26 on Women Migrant Workers. In particular, it does a reading of the Philippine statutes and programs in terms of the extent to which it is consistent with the said international treaty and whether the provisions are implemented in practice, based on secondary data and interviews.


Jean Encinas-Franco is currently an Assistant Professor in the Department of Political Science, College of Social Sciences and Philosophy, University of the Philippines, Diliman. Before she entered the academe, she worked for 15 years at the Senate of the Philippines, where she was Director III of the Senate Economic Planning Office. She also lectured at the International Studies Department of Miriam College from 1999 to 2009, and was a Faculty Associate of its Women and Gender Institute. Her dissertation explores the politics of labor out-migration in the Philippines and the discursive representation of overseas Filipino workers (OFWs) as “modern-day heroes”. Her interest on labor out-migration focuses on its gender dimension and its political consequences.

Topic: Migrant Workers’ Well-being: A Social Inclusion Perspective

Lillian Lih-rong Wang

National Taiwan University, Taiwan


This paper focuses on measuring well-being of migrant caregivers who primarily provide care-giving at home. The assumption is that “social inclusion” can be the strong intervention element affecting well-being of migrant workers’ living at “home” in daily life.

Method: The measurement of social inclusion includes 9 indicators such as social participation, community activity involvement, education participation, employers’ family- leisure activity….. After 200cases collected in Taiwan, some significant social inclusion indicators have shown their statistical significance in influencing migrant domestic workers’ life, and its strong implication for the families who hire migrant domestic workers and for the policy-makers from human right perspective will be addressed.

Result: The logistic regression analysis has been employed. It tends to be that the higher social inclusion scores, the better of wellbeing. In general, it turns out that the less work and (personal) life conflict, the better wellbeing. The significant factors tend to be income, the length of staying, and less conflict of work and personal life conflict, and higher social inclusion through social participation. Discussion: What are the policies for migrant workers’ quality of life can be improved? From human right perspective, what should we address for global migrant workers?


Lillian Lih-Rong Wang (also known Lih-Rong Wang), professor of Department of Social Work , National Taiwan University , majoring in social policy and gender. She has conducted two waves of national violence against women survey in Taiwan and two waves of social quality survey in Taiwan in last few years. Specifically, she has strong interest on domestic violence, work & family balance, and female labor force participation, and social quality. Given an honor to be academic professor in University of Oxford (07/2011 to 07/2012), she has been inspired to do research in gender equality and birth rate, work and life balance of female global workers from a social inclusion perspective, and gender difference in resilience and NGOs’ role in disaster of Taiwan and China. Currently she has joined an international research team related to Chinese Philanthropy Initiatives conducted by UCLA, National Taiwan University, UC Irvin, and two universities from China. Professor Wang was honorably appointed as chief editor for NTU Journal of Social Work Review (2006~2011) and the editors for several international journals such as Asia Journal of Sexual Assault and Domestic Violence, Asia Women, International Journal of Public and Private Healthcare Management and Economics for several years. She was frequently invited as readers and reviewers for several international journals including International Journal of Social Welfare, Asia Women, Journal of Public Policy, and China Social Work Journal etc. In addition to academic work, she has been working with more than 15 NGOs for their program development and agency review, and do advocacy together for women’s right and disadvantaged people’s needs for many years.

Entitlement of the Migrants and Quality of Care: Comparing Policies between Taiwan and JapanReiko Ogawa

Kyushu University, Japan


Responding to the increasing entry of women into the labour market as well as the growing aging population, migrants are sought as one of the options to fill in the state’s inability to provide care and the actual needs for care. Feminization of migration is a salient feature of migration in Asia today and migration studies have been examining the experiences and the agencies of migrant women in different context.

The research aims to provide a comparative analysis on how the migrants are introduced in East Asia by examining the construction of care regimes and migration regimes. Japan, Taiwan and Korea share the similar type of welfare state, facing the same demographic change of population aging and low fertility rate and started to introduce migrants to undertake care work since the 1990s. However, the ways in which migrant care workers have been introduced largely differs depending on how the care regime and migration regime intersect and interrelate with each other.

Theoretical approach is driven from two main scholarships on migration studies and social welfare studies. Empirical data has been drawn from the field work in Japan, Taiwan, Philippines and Indonesia, including in-depth interviews and participant observations to migrants, employers, directors and staff of care facilities, CSOs and self-help groups and government officials. The study shows that the quality of care and the entitlement of migrants are co-related and if developed countries want a stable and quality workforce, they need to ensure that the migrants are well cared.


Reiko Ogawa, Associate Professor, Graduate School of Social and Cultural Studies, Kyushu University. Major in sociology, anthropology and migration studies. Her research interest is on transnational migration, care work and gender. Some of the recent publications includes "Demographic Change and Migration of Care Workers, State, Care Facilities and Migrants," Eds. Stephen Nagy et al. 2016, Japan''s Demographic Revival: Rethinking Migration, Identity and Sociocultural Norms, World Scientific; "From Social Reproduction to Gender Equality: Women’s Work and Care in Japan," eds. Marian Baird et al., Women''s Work and Care in Asia/Pacific, (Routledge, forthcoming); Configuration of Migration and Long-Term Care in East Asia: The Intersection between Migration and Care Regimes in Japan and Taiwan, Eds. Raymond K. H. Chan et.al., 2014, Social Issues and Policies in Asia: Family, Ageing and Work, Cambridge Scholars Publishing “Globalization of Care and the Context of Reception of Southeast Asian Care Workers in Japan”, 2012, Southeast Asian Studies, Vol.49, No. 4, etc.

Session 3: The Current State of Foreign Domestic Caring System from Civil Society Perspective

Topic: Love and Money: Multitiered Transfer of Filipino Migrant Workers in Taiwan

Hsiang Lan Liu、Wei Wei

Rurum Novarum Center, Taiwan


As the caregiving role of Filipino Migrant Workers, hereafter referred to as Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs), within transnational families continues to evolve, understanding whether and how their caregiving contents (money and love) are shaped by remittance as well as information and communication technologies (ICTs) is needed. This is especially relevant for OFWs who were born in different generations with respective developmental levels of ICTs and services of money remittance. Therefore, this present study explores the multitiered transfer and interaction of caregiving, money remittance and ICTs between two generations of OFWs who worked in Taiwan.

This study is based on qualitative research, with utilization of interviews: 8 OFWs were interviewed (those born in 1970s and 1980s). The main findings of this study indicate that the role played by ICTs and remittances on caregiving of OFWs is essential. That is, not only money do remittance via efficient bank services serve as a symbol of OFWs’ love toward their families but the use of ICTs developed by ICT companies may also strengthen OFWs sense of a co-presence with their families. However, the multitiered transfer of love and money within transnational families is exploited and oppressive for OFWs. These findings provide suggestions and implications for policies and further research.


Hsiang Lan, Liu Researcher of Rurum Novarum Center(PT); An adjunct assistant professor of the Department of Social Work, NTU

Wei, Wei, Director of Rerum Novarum Center (an affiliate of Jesuit Conference of Asia Pacific Migrant Networking); Master’s in Religious Education, Ateneo University de Manila; Fu Jen Faculty of Theology of St. Robert Bellarmine lecturer, the member of several advisory commissions on human rights and women’s rights in government and civil society. The Rerum Novarum Center offers direct services for the legal aid, human development and social economic development of migrant workers, low-income workers, indigenous families and work-injured people. The Center strengthens neglected and marginalized workers through casework, empowerment programs, community-building and social action for human rights and social justice.

Topic: Challenging protection migrant domestic workers in ASEAN

Anis Hidayah

Migrant Care, Indonesia



Anis Hidayah, currently executive director of Migrant CARE. Magister international law of Gadjah Mada University. Starting in advocacy for migrant workers’ rights since 1997. Active on research, writing articles in national newspaper and journal, reources person on migration. Book published: migration policy in Indonesia (2013), Irony democracy, the picture of Indonesian general election abroad (2014). Receiving Alidon Des Forgers Award Human Rights Watch (2011), Yap Thian Hien Award (2014) , Sarinah Award (2014) and On Shine on award 2014.

Topic: Bridging the Citizen/Foreigner Divide: Migrant Worker Activism and the Day-off Campaign in Singapore

Chiu Yee KOH and Brenda S.A. YEOH

National University of Singapore, Singapore


This paper examines the mediating role of civil society in bridging the citizen/foreigner divide in terms of access to rights, by using the case study of the “day off campaign” for migrant domestic workers in Singapore. By employing the economic language of “work” and “productivity” in their campaign in recalibrating a commitment to “care” and “respect” for the human rights of non-citizen, low-waged others, civil society groups attempt to situate migrant rights within Singapore’s nationalist narrative of development via labour importation strategies. In doing so, the migrant rights discourse has seen considerable progress in recent years, but in a manner that pragmatically frames and re-frames the discourse in reconciliation with national interests. Yet as civil society remains closely aligned with the nationalist project, the expansion of migrants’ rights, likewise, remains contingent on its situational usefulness for socio-political practice (Yeoh and Huang, 1999; Lyons and Yee,2009; Yeoh, 2013) .


Chiu Yee Koh holds a Bachelor in Social Science from the Singapore Management University. She is currently working as Research Assistant for the Migrating Out of Poverty Research Programme Consortium at the Asia Research Institute (ARI), National University of Singapore. At ARI, Chiu Yee is currently researching on the role of placement agencies for migrant domestic workers, and the policy processes behind the implementation of the weekly day-off policy for domestic workers in Singapore.

Brenda S.A. Yeoh is Provost’s Chair Professor, Department of Geography, as well as Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, National University of Singapore. She is also the Research Leader of the Asian Migration Cluster at the Asia Research Institute, NUS. Her research interests include the politics of space in colonial and postcolonial cities and she also has considerable experience working on a wide range of migration research in Asia, including key themes such as cosmopolitanism and highly skilled talent migration; gender, social reproduction and care migration; globalising universities and international student mobilities; and cultural politics, family dynamics and international marriage migrants. Her latest book titles include Return: Nationalizing Transnational Mobility in Asia (Duke University Press, 2013, with Xiang Biao and Mika Toyota) and Transnational Labour Migration, Remittances and the Changing Family in Asia (Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, with Lan Anh Hoang).

Topic: Care Justice

Jing-Ru Wu

Taiwan International Workers’ Association, Taiwan


Work Experience:

●2014/01/01 to present. Researcher, Taiwan International Workers’ Association (TIWA) ;

●2012/07 to present. Member, National Alliance of Workers Victimized by Plant Closure

●2010/08-2013/12/31. Chair, TIWA Board of Directors

●2007-2010. General Secretary, TIWA

●2005-2007. Secretary General, TIWA

●2005/01-2005. Secretary General of TIWA and Project Director, Vietnamese Migrant Workers’ and Brides’ Office (VMWBO)

●2003/01-2004/12. Migrant Labor Investigator, Taipei City Labor Bureau

●2000/01-2002/12. Migrant Labor Investigator, Kaohsiung City Labor Bureau

●1997-2000. Research Assistant, National Science Council Research Project on Foreign Brides and Foreign Workers


●MA, Shih Hsin University Graduate Institute for Social Transformation Studies

●BS, Tamkang University Mathematics Department

Session 4: Return Migrants and Human Resource

Management Policy

Topic: The Views of Care Worker Returnees from Japan: Evaluation of Return to Practice

Ferry Efendi12, Anna Kurniati3, Ching-Min Chen4, Reiko Ogawa5


Aim: The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of care worker returnees from Japan.

Background: In the light of migration cycle under Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement, there is an ongoing flow of Indonesian returnees to the homeland. However, only a few study highlighting the phenomenon after return. Finding from the limited Indonesian returnees studies suggest that more research is needed, and live experiences should be added. Method: Using a phenomenology of practice study design and Van Manen’s principles of data analysis, narratives from the guided interviews with 15 care workers who had migrated from the Japan, were collected and studied for themes.

Findings: Five themes that emerged from the stories of returnees together describe a trajectory of lived experiences that the returnees encountered during their reintegration stage in Indonesia. The emergent themes were a readiness to return, consequences of return, a difficult journey, resource mobilization and overcoming barriers. Study findings noted enormous challenges after return and needs of returnees on a comprehensive approach to return migration management.

Conclusions: The findings highlighted that return home was a critical time for participants, with some undecided about their future career choice. It is important that any intervention to help returnees back to the labor market are targeted at their specific needs.


Ferry Efendi is a junior lecturer at Faculty of Nursing, Airlangga University, Indonesia. Currently, Ferry is studying a doctoral degree at National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. His majoring in nursing, which is focusing his research on Indonesian nurse migration. Aside as a lecturer, Ferry has been involved in the projects related Human Resources for Health (HRH) such as implementation of the World Health Organization Global Code of Practice on the international recruitment of health personnel in Indonesia, develop the online registration system for Indonesian nurse migration under Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement (IJEPA), and national HRH observatory of Indonesia.

●1Doctoral Student at Institute of Allied Health Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan

●2Faculty of Nursing, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia

●3Center of Planning and Management of Human Resources for Health, Ministry of Health, Republic of Indonesia

●4Department of Nursing, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan

●5Department of Cultural Studies, Faculty of Social and Cultural Studies, Kyushu University, Japan

Topic: Indonesian Returnee-- Health Care Worker Migrants: Current Condition and ChallengesYuko Ohara- Hirano

Nagasaki University, Japan


Since 2008, 567 Indonesia nurses and 966 Indonesian care workers, most of those had finished nursing course in Indonesia, have been sent to Japan under the Japan-Indonesia Economic Partnership Agreement (JIEPA). Currently, more than 550 people have returned to Indonesia after the termination of the contract with Japanese hospitals or care facilities. According to the authors’ survey, the primary reason for Indonesian nurses and care workers to enter Japan under the JIEPA is to develop their professional careers (Hirano, 2012). As JIEPA aims to accelerate the implementation of the trade between Indonesia and Japan, it is necessary to evaluate the nurse and care worker migration under this scheme, for developing a better scheme in the future.

This study highlights the ‘achievement’ of JIEPA returnees have made when they were in Japan, and to find how they contribute to their professional career developments after they returned to Indonesia. In depth interview and a survey was conducted at the venue of Job Fair for JIEPA returnees, which was hold by Embassy of Japan in December 2, 2015.

According to the interview, nurse returnees valued the autonomy of nurses in Japan, which is lesser observed in Indonesia; therefore they are less likely to work in hospitals in Indonesia. Instead, they wish to choose other jobs, which they can fully utilize, their Japanese language, such as interpreters and translators. Interviewees who are recruiting returnees were put on value not only to the applicants’ diligent personality but also to their Japanese language proficiencies. Although, according to an employer, who owns a medical clinic for Japanese residents in Indonesia, Indonesian returnees sometimes overestimate their career in Japan, even if they could not perform any actual nursing job by failing the national board examination.


Yuko Ohara-HIRANO is a professor at the Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University. She obtained her Ph.D. in Health Sciences from the University of Tokyo in 1997. Her dissertation was on the socio-cultural factors that correlate to the mental health status of Filipino migrants to Japan. Since then, she has studied about health seeking behaviors, social supports and their implications to the health outcomes of migrants in Japan.

Her specialty is the Sociology of Health and Illness. The Sociology of Health and Illness is a multi-disciplinary study, involving economics, politics as well as health sciences. It focuses on the phenomenon of health and illness by considering both formal and informal inter-relationships based on person to person, person to group and group to group dynamics. In this field of study, both quantitative and qualitative analyses are used. The goal of the Sociology of Health and Illness is to present perceptive and incisive data, which society can utilize for developing ''healthier'' society – leading to a higher quality of life and greater respect for human rights.

In the field of health care worker migration, she focuses on how the social environments of sending as well as receiving countries contribute to their working and living condition at the host society. She emphasizes that to focus on the working and living condition of the health care migrants in Japan is a key to obtain a basic data which Japanese society can utilize for developing a society to consider health care work as a ‘decent work’, which is applicable to any person in charge, regardless the differences of nationality.

Topic: Return and Reintegration: State Regulation and the Labor Migrant Experience

Maria Elissa Jayme Lao

Ateneo de Manila University, Philippine


Any number of crisis can send Overseas Filipino Workers (OFW) home: natural disasters, changes in government policy, end of contract, change in circumstances. In the past years, these instances have tested "newer" migrant agencies that deal with return and reintegration such as the National Reintegration Center for OFWs (NCRO) and local governments. In many cases, OFWs themselves rely not on official state apparatus but on a network of formal and informal ties for return and reintegration. This paper looks at return and reintegration in the case of (1) emergency repatriation (2) change in government policy and answer the question: What factors affect decision making of OFWs during and after return and reintegration? What types of assistance are sought by OFWs in making transitional choices during return and reintegration? The paper intends to utilizes the work of Goss and Lindquist (1995), but in the considering return and reintegration rather than departure.


Maria Elissa Jayme-Lao is Assistant Professor at the Ateneo de Manila University where she is Chair of the Department of Political Science. She is also a Research Associate at the Institute of Philippine Culture of Ateneo de Manila University. She received her Doctorate in Public Administration from the National College of Public Administration and Governance, University of the Philippines, Diliman in 2011. She also currently sits as Vice President of the Philippine Political Science Association (PPSA). Her current research includes work on Philippine foreign policy, migration and Philippine elections, democratization in the Philippines and Disaster Management.

Topic: Return Migration and Reintegration Programs for Low-Skilled Migrant Workers in Indonesia

Palmira Permata Bachtiar and Dinar Dwi Prasetyo

The SMERU Research Institute, Indonesia


The link between migration and development is largely considered to be limited to remittances. This is reflected in the Indonesian analogy of migrant workers as “remittance heroes,” emphasizing the financial capital sent by workers back home.

This paper tries to enlarge the conceptualization of migrant workers to include all forms of human, financial and social capital. It starts with a disc

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